Electron Beam Lithography

Electron beam lithography is a technique for producing custom patterns with minimum features below 10 [nm]. This is achieved by focusing a beam of electrons into a tiny spot and scanning the beam to expose a pattern on a electron sensitive media. The exposed pattern produces structural contrast in the media after development. Electron beam lithography can be performed using a scanning electron microscope, but it is typically better to use an electron beam writer which is designed to provide faster print speed with higher resolution while requiring significantly less training.

Jeol JBX-5500FS Electron Beam Writer

DescriptionSpecification
Accelerating Voltage50 [kV]
Beam Current100 [pA] to 40 [nA]
Writing Field100 [um] x 100 [um] or
1 [mm] x 1 [mm]
Scan Resolution0.5 [nm] or 5 [nm]
Writing Area75 [mm] x 75 [mm]
Compatible Samples75 [mm] wafer or
100 [mm] wafer or
custom chip
Minimum Feature Size≤ 10 [nm]
Overlay Accuracy≤ 40 nm (3σ)
Field Stitching Accuracy≤ 40 nm (3σ)

Examples

Core Technology

Core TechnologyDescription
SOP: Jeol JBX-5500FSThis document is the standard operating procedure (SOP) for the Jeol JBX-5500FS electron beam writer at UHNF. This SOP serves as a foundation for initial training and ensures that the equipment can be operated correctly, by everyone, the first time.
PMMAPMMA is a positive tone electron beam media with below 30 [nm] resolution and a sensitivity of 400 [uC/cm2]. PMMA costs $1/mL and has an infinite shelf-life.
MMA/PMMAMMA/PMMA comprise of a layer of MMA beneath PMMA. MMA/PMMA is a positive tone electron beam media with below 60 [nm] resolution and a sensitivity of 400 [uC/cm2]. MMA/PMMA costs $2/mL and has an infinite shelf-life. The pattern produced in the MMA layer is always wider than the PMMA layer by at least 60 [nm]. This undercut greatly improves the lift-off process.
HSQHSQ is a negative tone electron beam media with below 30 [nm] resolution and a sensitivity of 700 [uC/cm2]. This resist costs $25/mL and has a 6 month shelf life.
PHOSTPHOST is a negative tone electron beam media with below 200 [nm] resolution and a sensitivity of 15,000 [uC/cm2]. This is a cheaper and more stable alternative to HSQ.
SSP: Jeol JBX-5500FSThis document is the standard service procedure (SSP) for the Jeol JBX-5500FS electron beam writer at UHNF. This SSP ensures that any staff can effectively perform routine service or repairs correctly, the first time. This document is restricted to equipment custodians. Contact us for access.

Guides

GuideDescription
AlignmentAlignment marks are used to establish a coordinate system that it can use to expose patterns relative to a pattern on the sample. This guide describes the recommended alignment marks for the JBX-5500FS electron beam writer.
Beam DriftThe beam position drifts when the objective lens is changed. This guide characterized the beam drift and explains why it may be important to wait up to 3 hours for the beam drift to stabilize.
CAD LayoutComputer-Aided Design (CAD) uses a computer to prepare a layout to be printed by the electron beam writer. This guide provides a brief tutorial using a free layout editor.
CalibrationThe electron beam writer is calibrated before each print to ensure optimal performance. This guide explains each component in the calibration system.
FocusSlight variation in the height of a sample can cause the beam to be out of focus during a print. This guide describes the consequences of sample height variation on a grating pattern.
Pattern AreaThe cost of using an electron beam writer is proportional to the total patterning area. Designing proper experiments can significant reduce the cost of research and development.
Proximity EffectThe proximity effect causes shapes to print differently depending on nearby patterns. In this guide, we explore the theory behind the proximity effect and the techniques available to manage it.
Sample HeightThe JBX-5500FS does not adjust the focal point of the electron beam. Fortunately the height map for each cassette is repeatable and does not depend on the sample.
Write Time CalculatorUse this write time calculator to estimate the minimum amount of time it takes to print your pattern. Add an additional 20 minutes for setup and cleanup to estimate the appropriate amount of time to reserve the equipment.
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